Various Styles of WritingJulia Cagney, Danielle Clifford, Dylan Dartnell

There are many styles of writing in existence. They each are defined by certain telling characteristics, i.e. format, purpose, and content. Each style appears different upon first glance; however, the goals of these styles seem to overlap. After analyzing various types of writing, it became obvious that certain goals were specific to almost all styles of writing. Each style of writing demonstrates a different means of getting across a point to an audience, however, the common goals of these types of writing appear very similar: showing the author's reality, persuading the reader, and shaping the reader's reality. The thesis comes first in a paper, which is why showing the author’s reality is the first category being discussed in each section. In essence, a thesis portrays what the author wants to communicate to the reader, and so the author proceeds to persuade the reader and shape the reader's reality.

Below five styles of writing were analyzed. The styles analyzed include science, law, business, the humanities, and novels. The organization of the following page is formatted from
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the most guideline-oriented style to the least guideline-oriented writing style. For instance, scientific writing tends to follow a specific structure whereas novels are based the most off of the author’s reality.

The purpose of scientific writing is to present facts and state conclusions found by way of experimentation. It consists of reports and analyzed information. A scientific report follows a specific structure, as shown below. Legal writing, like scientific writing, also has a set structure but has fewer concrete guidelines. It typically consists of memorandums, persuasive writing, and briefs. Similarly to legal writing, business writing follows a formal structure; however it is more loosely organized, mainly because it has more to do with making business deals as opposed to addressing legal matters. Business writing is about prioritizing the most important aspects of what needs to be conveyed, and conveying those aspects in the most concise manner possible. In humanities writing there is a skeleton format however what the papers consist of tends to be very different because there are so many subcategories of humanities, hence our focus on writing in anthropology. Novels, the least guideline-oriented style, have a general format with a plot and a moral, however, the author has freedom to stray from a standard format. The purpose of analyzing this style of writing is to make obvious the strict formatting of the other forms of writing.

SciencesIntroduction: Scientific writing is useful for presenting facts and data. Scientific writing mainly consists of reports which present and analyze information. This type of writing is the most structured and guideline oriented style that has been analyzed on this page. Usually, scientific writing is in the form of a report or a proposal, so it begins with either a description of the experiment or a description of the proposal being presented. This description shows the author's reality because the author believes that the experiment is necessary, or that the proposal is the best solution to a problem. Next, scientific writing persuades the reader to believe the facts presented or to agree with a proposal. By persuading the reader, the author is accomplishing one of his/her goals: to make his/her reality the reader's reality also.

One example of scientific writing is engineering reports. Engineers are usually considered experts in math and physics or chemistry, however an engineer's job doesn't stop in the lab; there is also a lot of writing involved. An example of an engineer's typical day at work, given in the schedule below, shows how much writing is actually involved. This day in particular involved plenty of writing and communication skills.

Arrive, read and reply to overnight emails from overseas
Work on project
Meet with project manager to write answer to department head request
Write up a request to obtain needed technical support
Meet with server group about submitted application to fix process problems
Reply to emails from Sales about prospective customers' technical questions
Write to software vendor about how our product works with their plans
Give presentation to server hosting group to explain what my group is doing
Join the team to write up weekly progress report
Write emails to update customers on the status of solving their problems
Write email reply to questions about knowledge base article I wrote
Meet with group to discuss project goals for next four months
Meet with group to create presentation of findings to project management
Work on project
Leave for day
(Beer, 3)
(Beer, 4)

As shown in the schedule above, engineers write very frequently, but engineering writing also comes in many forms, as shown at the right.

Engineers write for many reasons; to inform readers, to request permission, to instruct readers, to propose a plan, to recommend an action, to persuade readers, and to record data are just a few examples (Beer, 14). An engineering report has a very different format from other styles of writing. Engineering reports often include shorts paragraphs, lists, tables, graphs, and have an outline format as opposed to an essay with long consecutive paragraphs. Also, engineering reports should not be vague, redundant, or too wordy (Beer, 22-23).

What does a typical engineering report consist of?

  • "Transmittal letter
  • Covers and labels
  • Table of contents
  • List of figures
  • Executive summary
  • Introduction
  • Body of the report
  • Appendixes and references" (Beer, 124)

The structure and format for a scientific paper is the most guideline oriented style of writing that we analyzed on this page. Typically, scientific writing consists of a title page, purpose or hypothesis, discussion of significance, review of work being done, materials and methods, discussion of possible outcomes, and a time frame and budget (Davis, 45).

Scientific writing differs from other styles of writing mostly because of its format. Scientific writing usually includes abbreviations, symbols, tables, and numbers. Its format is essentially a raw representation of data with analysis and conclusions at the end (Huth, 137-141). Scientific writing is usually written in the past tense, should use the active voice, and avoid the passive voice (Satish). Though the format is very different, it still has similarities to other styles of writing, like showing the author's reality, persuading the reader, and shaping the reader's reality.

Showing the Author's Reality: All scientific reports show the author's reality, despite the fact that scientific papers generally fall into one of two categories; a report presenting data or a report showing the author's solution to a problem. If the author performs an experiment and then presents the data and analysis in a report, that data must be realistic. The author physically performed the experiment, and the analysis shows his/her reality because it is was what he/she believes to be true based on the experiment. If the author writes a report suggesting a solution to a problem, the author will want the reader to agree with the suggestion, so he/she proposes what is thought to be the best and most realistic solution. In stating what is believed to be the most practical and realistic way to approach the problem, the author's reality becomes evident.

Persuading the Reader: The purpose of a scientific report is to display facts and show the analysis and conclusions of those facts, or to present a situation and propose a solution/plan of action for that situation. An engineering report, for example, usually takes the format of presenting a situation and proposing a plan so it can try to persuade the reader of many things. Those persuasions include approving a project, giving funding, choosing that group of engineers over a different group for a project, etc. If an engineer does not have a well written report and does not persuade the reader, or company, for example, that company will not choose that engineer for their task. Therefore, it is very important that engineers have good writing skills and know how to create an organized and convincing report. Additionally, in order to persuade the reader, the author of the report must be very conscious of his/her audience and write to appeal to that specific audience. For example, when writing a proposal to a company, the author must be aware of what the company wants so he/she can use key words that will appeal to the reader. Scientific reports are also written to appeal to the audience with an easy to read format aided by bulleted lists, tables, and graphs.

Shaping the Reader's Reality: A scientific paper, by nature, is usually very factual, and therefore, very straightforward. A lab report, for example, will display the procedure and purpose of an experiment, and then state the data recorded by performing the experiment. If the experiment is performed by a credible source, this data cannot be questioned. When a reader is looking at the lab report, he/she trusts that the experiment was done correctly and accepts the results to be his/her reality. Shaping the reader's reality is also very important in engineering reports. The author of the report must create a realistic solution to the task, and present it in a way that appeals to the reader. If the reader trusts the author, the author can state his/her opinion in a way that makes it become the reader's opinion also. Thus, the author's reality becomes the reader's reality, and the final goal is accomplished.

Legal WritingIntroduction: Similar to scientific writing, legal writing follows a strict format. It is a little less guideline oriented because scientific writing focuses on writing reports, but most styles of legal writing follow a specific format to achieve it's goals. Contrary to common belief, the most recent form of legal writing is short and concise. A judge does not want to have to listen to a long argument just so a lawyer can prove one point. Legal writing should be written in common English and avoid wordiness. The style of legal writing is similar to scientific and business writing because, according to Squires, Rombauer, and Kennedy, legal writing should be written “simply, concretely, and clearly” (3). However, it differs from other writing styles because it is “rigorously analytical”
Mills, David
(4). Legal writing, whether a lawyer is writing an arguement or a memorandum, shows the author's reality because the information contained in that piece of writing is what the lawyer believed at that point in time. One of legal writing's most important goals is to persuade the reader (audience), similar to the goals of humanities, business, science, and novels. The author wants the audience to form the same opinion as him/her, especially in a court of law, so by showing the author's reality and persuading the reader, legal writing shapes the reader's reality. By shaping the audience's reality, a lawyer can make the audience agree with his/her position, which means winning the case.

Three examples of legal writing include memorandums, persuasive writing, and brief writing.
Memorandum: According to Squires, Rombauer, and Kennedy, a memorandum should be an overview of the case. It is written by a lawyer and will be read by another lawyer. It should be concise, include pros and cons, and provide both sides of the argument. The format for a memorandum is:

  • Question
  • Brief Answer
  • Statement of the Facts
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion

Persuasive Writing: This type of writing is written by a lawyer and will be read by a person making a decision, like a judge. Persuasive writing has a forceful tone and should not be humorous. The lawyer uses this format and serious style of writing to accomplish three goals:

  • To get to his/her point quickly
  • To introduce the best argument first
  • To keep argument short and concise

Brief Writing: Briefs and patents are written in a formal style by a lawyer, and are meant to be filed with the court system. The format for a brief is:

  • Introduction
  • Jurisdiction Statement
  • Statement of Issues
  • Statement of Case
  • Statement of Facts
  • Summary
  • Argument (Davies, 21)

When writing any type of legal writing, Bouchoux suggests that the authors follow the following three principles;
"writing should be reader oriented, writing should use natural expressions and commonly known words, and documents should be visually appealing" (72). Bouchoux also states that legal writings should consist of concrete and descriptive words. The author should not be vague or choose words with double-meanings, so their intentions are clear to the reader. Legal writings should not consist of made-up phrases, slang, or offensive language. Finally, one way that legal writing differs from many other types of writing, the author should not focus on avoiding repetition. An author should not use synonyms to avoid repetition because this inconsistency may confuse the reader (73-79, 82).

Showing the Author's Reality: Legal writing shows the author's reality because a lawyer will form his/her argument depending on what he/she believes at the time. In creating the argument, the author must look at both sides of the case. In doing so, the author is reminded that there are two sides to his/her argument, not just the side that he/she is trying to prove. The author is forced to come up with both pros and cons for the argument, which keeps his/her argument realistic. When presenting an argument, the author must stick to facts, and be accurate to avoid misstatements. This requires the author to stay updated with the law through research. If an author of a case does all of these things, his/her argument will be stronger, therefore, improving his/her credibility. A lawyer must worry about reputation so he/she only presents what is believed to be reality, so his/her credibility is not questioned.

Persuading the Reader: The sole purpose of legal writing is to provide a clear analysis of a situation, and make the reader agree with the author's point of view. Whether it be a memorandum, where the author is trying to persuade another lawyer to accept a case, a persuasive argument, where the author is trying to persuade the reader to agree with his/her point of view, or a brief, where the author is trying to persuade the reader to understand and agree with his/her position, all the types of writing are trying to persuade the reader. According to Fischer, a lawyer must state the law accurately and authoritatively (1, 8). A strong characteristic of legal writing that helps to persuade the reader is the fact that it is authoritative, analytical, and avoids wordiness. Even though lawyers are encouraged to use everyday English terminology, their style of writing may seem sophisticated. The fact that legal writing might be hard to comprehend for some can be considered a weak characteristic, but the audience of legal writing (other lawyers or judges) are educated to understand that style. While persuading the reader, the author must be very aware of his/her audience. If the author can appeal to his/her audience and get in touch with their emotions, the author will be more likely to persuade the reader to have the same opinion as him/her.

Shaping the Reader's Reality: Legal writing shapes the reader's reality because the purpose of the writing is to convince the reader of the author's position. Typically, legal writing presents the author's side of an argument and states why that side is right. The author presents both sides of the argument but uses selective language and a forceful tone while presenting the facts to make the reader agree with his/her position. Also, the author usually presents his/her side of the argument first to make it seem like the better side of the argument. The author's authoritative argument and sophisticated analysis attempts to make the reader agree with the author, thereby shaping the reader's reality to be the same as the author's reality.

Introduction: Similar to legal writing, but a bit less structured, business writing is the next style that we will analyze on the page. Business writing follows general guidelines, but since business writing is more concerned with making business deals and not writing a legal brief, it is less guideline oriented then legal writing. In the world of business, authors strive for efficiency and accuracy, something that often cannot be attained by way of long messages or wordy proposals. Business writing is about prioritizing the most important aspects of what needs to be conveyed and conveying those aspects in the most concise manner possible. Balanko-Dickson states that writing up business plans can communicate strategies and facilitate discussions, in other words, business writing is essential in making deals and starting companies (Balanko-Dickson, 6) Like legal and scientific writing, business writing is meant to be to the point and simple in understanding. A person is not meant to be impressed with vocabulary or word choice when reading a memo sent from cubicle to cubicle. According to Business Communication Quarterly, business professionals are more interested in the content of business writing than the style incorporated within the writing(Seshadri & Theye, 1).


In order to develop successful business writing, authors must adhere to the aforementioned basics of the business style. In doing so, business authors can attain the common goals of showing the author's reality, persuading the reader, and thus create a reality for the reader. A business person presents an argument, letter, proposal, or idea to an audience in attempts to present his/her reality. In using various effective tactics, such as the use of "I," a business person persuades readers to see his/her side of the situation in a subtly forceful way. The author's use of subtle persuasion tactics aids in creating an author-reader connection that serves to shape the reader's reality to match that of the author's reality.
Elements of Business Writing that Contribute to 3 goals:
1. Active and Imperative voice
2. Clear and Concise Wording
3. Shorter Sentences

Showing the Reality of the Author: In business writing, the key element of showing an author’s reality comes with the usage of active voice(UO). A writer must adhere to active versus passive voice in order to command the attention of a reader(UO). By using “I” as opposed to “one” or other such passive references, the reader is immediately pulled to the reality of the author. The author directly addresses how he/she feels and thus the reader is left with no room for interpretation other than the interpretation of the author. Hence the use of active voice is an effective tool in the overall purpose of shaping the reader’s reality. Additionally, in the eyes of a businessman, business writing is all about the "product"(Seshardi &Theye). The "product," or the purpose of the author's writing, must be conveyed well to show the author's reality. In this style, as discussed, content is what matters most in showing a business writer's reality.

Business Communication Quarterly Research Results (Seshadri & Theye)
Business Communication Quarterly Research Results (Seshadri & Theye)

Persuasion of the Reader: Similarly to showing the author's reality, the use of active voice is effective in persuading the readers. Another common tactic implemented by business men and women is imperative voice(UO). In showing the author’s reality through use of active voice, the reader is being persuaded as well. The reader only sees what the author presents to him/her and if the author only presents the active voice- which communicates the author’s reality- then that aids in convincing the reader to think as the author thinks. Additionally, the imperative voice gives way to almost a commanding tone. The author writes with the purpose of getting a job or task complete and by doing so, forces the reader to do as they do. The implementation of imperative voice literally commands the reader to think a certain way and once again creates audience reality because judging by the way the author is writing, there is only one way to understand or do what has been written.

Shaping the Reader's Reality: Business writing is often direct and concise. Shorter sentences define business style, as well as parallel structure. A shorter sentence means less time to understand and less likelihood for misinterpretation. Additionally, forming sentences in similar ways helps the reader read and realize the point of the writing more efficiently. A reader should be able to scan a business piece and gain a quick overall understanding of what is written. Therefore, the reader’s reality is created but in a much shorter and direct manner than other styles of writing.(UO). This notion is supported by research from the Business Communication Quarterly's study on business professionals and faculty. The study found that business professionals spend approximately 2.5 minutes less than business faculty reading business letters(Seshardi & Theye). This information is crucial for business writers if they intend to appeal to their audience and shape readers' realities before they lose all interest. As mentioned earlier, forceful persuasion tactics serve to get the reader onboard with the author's reality and thus establishes a reader reality that is incredibly similar to the author's. The success of shaping a reader's reality, often times, leads to the success of a business plan or proposal in a meeting full of unsuspecting coworkers. It helps a businessman or women win his/her case, be it starting a new company, proposing an idea, or establishing new partnerships with other companies.

Introduction: Unlike the rigid structures of scientific and legal writing, or the conciseness of business writing, in humanities writing there is a skeleton format for every type of humanity. What the papers consist of tends to be very different because there are so many subcategories of humanities, hence our focus on writing in anthropology. Often times, humanities authors strive for the portrayal of the human condition. Frequently, in this form of writing, the writer's purpose is to display how humans go about living their lives. Perhaps before delving into the ultimate purpose and goal behind writing in the humanities, it is best to distinguish which subject areas this category contains. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, the humanities deals with human constructs and concerns as well as social relations. ( The humanities include: literature, philosophy, ethics, fine arts, history, anthropology, cultural studies, foreign languages, linguistics, political science, and sociology. Unlike the other categories being discussed, the humanities category is broad, therefore, there will be a focus on writing in anthropology to exemplify all forms of humanities writing.

Bernard Beins touches upon the crucial elements of a humanities paper in these statements from his book, “Most academic papers are exercises in influencing your reader that your thesis is accurate. In order to do this, you must know and use the conventions of the field, the audience for whom you are writing, what you are hoping to achieve through your writing, the parameters of the writing task, and what kind of support you need to achieve credibility as a writer,” (Beins, 60). In reading this, it becomes obvious that the goals of a humanities paper are similar to the goals of say a scientific or legal document. All of the styles of writing address a need to establish credibility, or show the author's reality and appeal to the audience in hopes of persuading the reader. Taking all of this into account, in order to develop a successful humanities prose, an author must touch upon the aforementioned topics in a strategic way. Additionally, Beins advises authors to avoid slang, colloquial expressions, vague expressions, contractions, and ridicule of other authors(Beins, 72).

Structure of Humanities Writing and How it Accomplishes 3 Goals:
1. Explicit introduction and thesis statement.
2. Evidence and counter evidence.
3. Making the writing important to the reader's life.

STOPPlease read the link below before proceeding.


Showing the Author’s Reality: Humanities authors begin with an explicit introduction, highlighting the thesis statement, which essentially develops the backbone of the entire piece to follow. The thesis statement is crucial to the success of the paper, it establishes the point that will be proven or focused on (Gillum; Beins, 66). This is where the reader becomes acquainted with the author’s reality. The thesis statement is a narrow focus on the beliefs of the author, which, in turn, is a glimpse into his/her reality. The author sets up a thesis statement in a manner in which his/her reality becomes obvious to the reader however the point and persuasion doesn’t appear until later in the writing. Take for example, the essay written in the link above. This anthropology essay focuses greatly on understanding how culture shock affects people, as its title makes obvious. Notice that Fedorak's essay begins with a detailed introduction that highlights the points to come in her paper, a characteristic that is necessary in writing for the humanities. Her introduction funnels into an explicit thesis that blatantly expresses her reality: culture shock is a rite of passage that everyone experience (Fedorak).

Persuasion of the Reader: According to Beins, “because each paragraph makes a claim, each paragraph needs evidence and support.” (Beins, 67) The body of the humanities writing includes multiple topic sentences relating back to the thesis along with the evidence, analysis and reasoning that back the author’s reality (Beins, 67). It is within the body of a humanities paper that the goal (creation of a reality for the audience) comes to life. It is here that the persuasion of the reader becomes greatly evident. The introduction just provides audiences with a brief glimpse into the author’s reality; the body makes use of persuasion tactics as listed above: reasoning, analysis, etc. A key aspect within the body of this style is counter-evidence. The goal of this style of writing is to show how people live and thus to prove any point that can be refuted, the rebuttal must be included. This counter-evidence argument helps the author to show that there is another side to the argument which in turn acknowledges his/her credibility thus enhancing their own arguments. Once again, this contributes to the shaping of a reader’s reality, because a reader will rely on a credible author. As Bein says, "if your readers see you as a credible writer,it will probably be easier to convince them that your argument is credible. Conversely, developing a strong argument can strengthen your authorial credibility.” (Beins, 66)

Referencing the link above again, the characteristics discussed in this section become evident. Fedorak neatly organizes her essay into subheadings that distinguish exactly what she intends to discuss and then delves into each subheading with the proper writing style. She persuades her reader's greatly as she includes multiple internal citations in every paragraph. It is in her use of citations and acknowledgements that she begins to gain her credibility. The reader can see that her evidence is reliable and her conclusions are plausible. For example, the stories of the people (students, anthropologists) entering bouts of depression, experiencing frustration with ways of life different from their own, and feeling a sense of isolation, all seemed to overlap. Even their ways of coping were similar such as, writing letters home, keeping busy, taking time to learn the language, and finding people to turn to who were in similar situations. By reading the repeated problems and solutions of many different individuals, especially the narrative on pages 24-27, it became clear that Fedorak had credibility and solid evidence(Fedorak).

Shaping the Reader's Reality: Like most other styles of writing, the humanities concludes with a brief summation of the piece with a few added aspects that tie together the ultimate purpose of the writing- why audiences should care. In the conclusion, authors often tie together their findings with reasoning for the audience’s concern. Frequently, authors implement predictions for the future and suggestions for reader involvement in/advocating for the topic of discussion. Perhaps one of the greatest strengths in this style is the evidence of reader-author connection. The conclusion, as stated, includes a real-life relationship between the material being discussed and the reader. The establishment of purpose of the material in the reader’s life is a strong asset to this style. The reader is shown how that piece of writing fits into their reality, told how it affects them, or how it should affect them. This type of connection makes the reader important and the author credible, hence the style becomes more effective in reaching out to audiences and attaining its goal of shaping the reader’s reality (Gillum; Beins, 67).

Again reference the above link to the humanities paper. Fedorak establishes the essential reader-author connection that aids her in shaping her audience's reality. The essay builds in a structural manner and maintains coherence throughout which makes it easy for the reader to follow. Fedorak begins with the description of the problem- culture shock- and ends by offering solutions and parting thoughts, or conclusions, drawn from her collected evidence. She concludes the chapter similar to how she began it, by stating that culture shock is simply a series of phases that will last for a period of time, eventually contributing to self-growth and acceptance. Because of the easy-to-follow, typical humanities formatted structure of this essay, the reader can follow Fedorak's process of thought from the introduction through to the conclusion of the piece and thus understand the author's reality. In communicating her reality and persuading the reader, she has, by the end of the essay, shaped the reader's reality successfully making her reality (that culture shock is a rite of passage), their his/her reality(Fedorak).

NovelsIntroduction: Novels are encountered in our daily lives. We cannot ignore them. They are used in classrooms, in the workplace and even just for enjoyment. They are works that do not possess a norm. Their structures can be established using any method the author wishes. Because of this fact, novels are extremely different from the previously discussed styles because their structure relies on greatly author's reality.

A novel is a fictitious work, usually a narrative, of significant length which depicts characters and usually consists of a plot, dialogue, and captivates some form of human interest. The conventional novel follows a sequence of events chronologically; however, not all novels follow this format (for example, the
picaresque type of novel does not necessarily follow a chronological sequence). Often, a novel is an instrument an author uses to communicate personal emotions or ideals. It is agreed upon by scholars worldwide that there are fourteen commonly accepted types of novels:

        • Historical
        • Sentimental
        • Gothic
        • Picaresque
        • Psychological
        • “Novel of Manners”
        • Epistolary
        • Pastoral
        • Apprenticeship
        • Roman à clef
        • Antinovel
        • Cult novels
        • Mystery/Detective
        • Thriller

Scholars also agree that there are six styles of writing novels:

        • Romantic
        • Realism
        • Naturalism
        • Impressionism
        • Expressionism
        • Avant-gardism

In one of her analyses of the novel, Marjorie Boulton discusses three main concepts of fiction, and thus the novel: entertainment, escapism, and verisimilitude. Boulton asserts that a novel is not so if it does not provide
entertainment for its audience; it should amuse the reader. In addition to entertaining the reader, a major concept of the novel is escapism; a novel should provide the reader with an opportunity to escape from their everyday lives. A third significant concept of a novel is verisimilitude: a reader is not meant to pretend that the ideas of a novel are fact, but the author must communicate that feeling that the events of a novel could, in fact, take place. In regard to verisimilitude, Boulton states: “we know the things did not happen, but must be made to feel that they could have happened” (15). Verisimilitude is “not evidence that the events did happen...but portrayal of events we feel could happen.” In order to meet the last requirement of verisimilitude within a novel, writers must engage in “close observation and collecting information” (20)

The relationship between novelist and reader and the ways in which novelists communicate their thoughts to their audience are very unique. The relationship between novelist and audience is truly reciprocal, as one cannot exist without the other. In his book The Modern Novel: A Study of the Purpose and Meaning of Fiction, Wilson Follett states the following of the relationship between the novelist and the reader: “The novelist and his reader create and perpetuate each other, by a uniquely impersonal reciprocity” (26). Because this relationship is so unique and personal between the two groups, Follett says that the novelist cannot write strictly out of creative impulse; in other words, the novelist cannot communicate his or her thoughts strictly by way of inspiration-he or she must define their thoughts through commonly used prose. Often, the purpose of a novel is to force a reader to enter something which is not the reader’s at all; it is not the reader’s world, it is not his or her reality. Instead, it is the author’s reality and world. The classic purpose of a novel is to draw a reader, or an audience as a whole, away from their norms (22).

ConclusionAfter analyzing scientific, legal, business, humanities, and novel writing styles, one can conclude that despite the exterior differences in each style, there seem to be three underlying goals. Each style has individual characteristics that address the purpose specific to that type of writing. Essentially, the skeleton of all writing comes down to the three goals: showing the author’s reality, persuading the reader, and shaping the reader’s reality. The goals are conveyed through various presentations and formats, hence why writing styles appear so different at a first glance. In summation, upon further observation of writing styles, it is plausible to deduce that although there are many different styles, all writing adheres to the three main goals.

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