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Monday, December 14

  1. msg Comments on your final revision message posted Comments on your final revision the citations on the bottom of the main page were for the images. I thought we had to reference und…
    Comments on your final revision
    the citations on the bottom of the main page were for the images. I thought we had to reference underneath each picture and with a works cited.
    2:46 pm
  2. msg Comments on your final revision message posted Comments on your final revision Overall, there are places where you make interesting points, but there's an unfinished quality to t…
    Comments on your final revision
    Overall, there are places where you make interesting points, but there's an unfinished quality to this as well (esp. since there's no conclusion). See more specific comments below.

    Your thesis could be a little clearer. How distinctively different are her works of fiction from the reality? Be specific.

    Use a trans. to set up your next subheading.

    In the Trial section you say this:

    Glaspell wrote several article discussing new evidence and gaining the attention of the people, leading them on each article so as to build up the anticipation.

    But you don't give examples of her doing things like discussing evidence.

    You do a better job of this in the next section. But you need a citation for this assertion: "Glaspell was unhappy with the male-dominated court trying Hossack and wished to try to use her influence to sway the outcome of the case."

    The subheading on Trifles and A Jury of Her Peers doesn't have any concrete examples from these works, though you make up for that in the next section. Maybe the 2 should be combined. But in the first 2 passages you offer in the next section, you don't coment on and explain the supposed similiarities you see there. You should. You provide a nunmber of excerpts from her journalism but don't have corresponding passges from her fiction.

    You don't have a conclusion, which obviously hurts your paper's organization.
    1:39 pm
  3. msg Comments on your final revision message posted Comments on your final revision Overall you've done pretty well w/ this. But the organization needs some work as well as the carefu…
    Comments on your final revision
    Overall you've done pretty well w/ this. But the organization needs some work as well as the careful use of sources. Below are more specific comments.

    Your opening para. is very much better, but the logic is off. You say,

    The word-image pairing examples above have the power to report reality--inform the audience of the actual truth, and possibly enhance reality--adding new true information to the reality of an observer, but offer little more than that."

    What is lacking? Additionally,your claims for advertising as somehow adding more than this aren't clear. How does advertising "warp" thinking and how do these other things not warp thinking when they enhance reality? Later you say advertising "alters" reality. Is this different from warping it? Clarify.

    Also in your categories of advertising, you omit advertising that appeals to reason and logic (as opposed to emotion). Why?

    Despite these problems, you have made clear what you intend to focus on.

    The para. defining emotions could be cut. Within that para. you have the following:

    Paul Ekman, the six basic human emotions are: sadness, happiness, anger, fear, disgust, and surprise, which can be combined in infinite ways and varying degrees to form the wide range of possible emotions (Phelps, 52).

    Your citation should say (cited in Phelps 52) since that's where you found Ekman's list. There are other instances of this type of citation poblem elsewhere on the page.



    Logic here:

    Everyone has experienced sadness in their life at some point or another, which makes it more universal than other negative emotions, say for instance remorse.

    Why focus only on neg. emotions. Everyone has experienced happiness too. What evidence is there to say that advertising focuses more on neg. that pos. emotions?

    First para. on Fear needs condensing.

    This sent. needs a citation to support it:

    Ads such as these have decreased the rate of smoking in the past years, the target behavior, but not nearly to the desired degree. I believe this is because the fear id very variable -- different things scare different people.

    The last sentence "I believe ..." should be cut. It's digressing.

    Section on humor seems to be starting over:

    The world is created by images by appealing to an individual's sense of humor.

    In additon, see what you say above about ads appealing to neg. emotions and look at this statement:

    humor is one of the more effective ways by which our reality is created

    and this one:

    "humor [appeals] relative to no-humor appeals on threatening topics are [more] effective". (Conway&Dube 863)

    The effect here is that you're contradicting what you said earlier (advertising "often appeal more to negative emotions, creating a stronger emotional response than advertisement focused on positive emotions").

    You have a good trans. at the end of this section, but the 1st par. on Needs sounds as if you're starting a new paper on a new topic. It needs cutting and reworking.

    The entire section on Needs seems to drift away from the rest of the page. No concrete focus on advertising here.

    You need to put citations in for the long quote from Mitchell.

    Section on Desires needs tightening in the first few paragraphs. The point isn't clear, and the quotations don't seem to support what you're trying to say.

    Selling the Point

    Some of this would work better as intro to the entire page. Citation problems in para. 2. and elsewhere in this section.

    Sent-level: Througout agr. errors mostly.
    1:14 pm
  4. msg Comments on your final revision message posted Comments on your final revision Overall, you've been very successful w/ this set of pages. I've put in comments below for each page…
    Comments on your final revision
    Overall, you've been very successful w/ this set of pages. I've put in comments below for each page. But nice work as a team.
    _
    Main Page

    This sentence sounds odd. How can there be simliarities and differences that are the same for all types? Is that what you're saying?

    Amongst these similarities and differences are aspects that hold true for all writing types.

    The syntax of the following sentence is off:

    Some characteristics are found between styles, such as how legal writing and scientific writing is generally more formal works of writing than journalistic and business (when appealing to customers) may be less formal.

    This sounds odd. Are you implying the other types of writing include fiction:

    it is brief and concise, and because it incorporates fact over fiction

    This sounds odd. Isn't journalism supposed to report the truth?

    journalism does not have a rigid structure or reliability with respect to truth,

    This is a comma splice error:

    Business, journalistic, legal and scientific writing styles are drastically different, however overlapping intentions can be found between styles as through their characteristics,

    Tell the reader to click on the following links to learn more about each type of writing.

    No citations on this page, but you have a W.C. at the bottom. Why?

    BUSINESS Writing

    Good overall, but there are problems in clarity w/ what comes from a source. For ex. where do the 7 characteristics come from?

    There are 7 basic characteristics of business writing.

    And here: when you refer to so many pages all at once, it's not always clear whhat comes from those pages. Is this also where the 7 characteristcs came from?

    Favor topic-action structures (focus the meaning on the main parts of the sentence). Avoid more than two nouns in a row, break up long sentences, and position phrases and information effectively (Marsen 52-59)

    Here's another example of the same thing:

    certain patterns work in certain situations. Chronological describes a process or event - how something happened. . . . .There is a problem, method to solve, result, and recommendations (Markel 19-23). Also, the writer should think about active vs. passive voice; first, second, and third person; headings and lists that make organization easier (Markel 34-39).

    You've got a long description of all the different types of organizational patterns. I guess that's found in Markel 19-23. But then your next sentence is condensing 5 more pages of Markel? That seems like a lot of pages for one idea. You're also slipping into a "how-to" approach here rather than analzing strengths.

    _
    Journalism

    This page does a nice job of taking apart and analyzing some concrete examples of journalistic writing. Here are some things that need work:

    The 3 aims sound more like 3 types of news articles. It seems odd to say that entertainment is the main goal of a news article on, say, the debate on health care reform in Congress.

    Look at this. Is your purpose here to teach people how to become journalists?

    Foot-in-the-Door Features
    This is the best way to break into publication.

    This long list of types of articles isn't that helpful. Also some of them have citations and some do not. Why?

    The characteristics section is thorough, but could be improved by breaking it up more. The long list-like appearance makes it daunting to look at. Also so many places say "see below." If you brought the illustrations up to where you're discussing them, you'd break up the page more effectiely.

    The long quotation from Rieder at the end of the Strengths section could be cut. The point about the internet is irrelvant to your point.

    Not everything listed in WC is cited in parenthesis in the body of your page.


    Legal Writing

    Good intro to the section. By why do you single out functional writing by briefly analyzing an example of it rather than the other 2 types?

    The 1st para. under Characteristics could work as an intro to the entire page and might be better if it were combined w/ your opening section.

    Good job w/ the annotated will, but instead of simply saying click here to see it, tell the reader how the will captures some of the characteristics you're describing first. Then say "click here to see more detail."
    ___

    Scientific Writing

    Nice page. It's a little confusing when you switch between scientific and technical writing as if they're both the same thing. Your title is Scientific writing, but I think there's a subtle difference between scientific and technical writing. Note that one of your sources is on how to write scientific AND technical papers. Maybe you should change your title.

    Nice job of annotating your examples, and nice job of weaving in some very pertinent quotatios.
    12:04 pm

Sunday, December 13

  1. msg Comments on your final revision message posted Comments on your final revision Overall, this page looks nice and clean and uses subheadings clearly and logically. When you get to…
    Comments on your final revision
    Overall, this page looks nice and clean and uses subheadings clearly and logically. When you get to the sub-subheadings of author's reality, etc. you ought to bold or italicize them to make them stand out more.

    Some sections need tightening. They repeat themselves. E.g., you say several times that scientific writing is the most guidleline-oriented style.

    There are also places where I'd like to see a concrete example of (for instance) a piece of legal writing that does what you say that type of writing does.

    Where does this list come from?

    Elements of Business Writing that Contribute to 3 goals:
    1. Active and Imperative voice
    2. Clear and Concise Wording
    3. Shorter Sentences
    4. CONTENT, CONTENT, CONTENT

    It's not clear how the graphic from Business Communication Quarterly relates to the material you've written (partly b/c of its location.

    In the humanities section, it's not clear why you want your reader to read the articles you've attached. You should summarize the key pts. of the article and tell the reader that he or she can see more details by clikcing on the link. In a way you do do this in subsequent paragraphs. But you need to set up how you're going to use that article a little more clearly. You do good analysis in this section, but in your 2nd-to-last para. it's not clear where the cited material begins. Introduce borrowed mateial.

    The section on the novel is very underdeveloped. The conclusion too needs some developoment. It is a little repetitious.

    Sent. level issues--c-s errors and run-ons, mostly in sentences w/ "however" are a problem.
    9:26 pm
  2. msg Comments on your final revision message posted Comments on your final revision At first glance your page looks pretty good, though you have some mixed fonts in the section on His…
    Comments on your final revision
    At first glance your page looks pretty good, though you have some mixed fonts in the section on History in the Story vs. Reality.

    Your orgnaization of subheadings makes sense, except for the position of Stanley's expedition. How does that fit under Conrad's experience in Africa Vs.the Account in HOD?

    Intro and thesis are clear. But give an idea of the organization of your page in the intro. You trace the critical reception, but don't set that up in the intro very clearly.

    The 1st para. of the overview of the critical reception section needs development. Explain how looking at the critical reception connects to your analysis of the historical accuracy of the work.

    You need a citation for this:

    "In a letter to William Blackwood, Conrad expressed that the subject of his African story was "very much our time."

    This citation should say "qtd. in Murfin" since you didn't read Moser's review, but got if from Murfin:

    "Moser makes the insight that “Marlow in the jungle is like the reader in text, that somehow Marlow’s quest for self-knowledge must be doubled by our own.” (Murfin 101-102)."

    This is not a sentence: " Ede, building on Achebe’s famous essay “An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad’s Heart of Darkness.”

    This needs a citation: "However it is still disputed whether Conrad’s purpose was to support or protest imperialism, and whether or not he was referring to imperialism in general, or just Belgian imperialism in the Congo." Who disputes this? Who raises these questions? Also, in the previous sentence, you cite Papke, but don't list him in your W.C.

    The section on Conrad's experiences is also relying on sources that don't appear in your W.C. It also has a lot of c-s errors.

    Several entries in your W.C. aren't cited in the body of your page.

    There is some good information in this page, but the writing is uneven in places, and there are problems with effective and approrpriate use of sources in several places as well.
    2:41 pm
  3. msg Comments on your final revision message posted Comments on your final revision Good intro, but your thesis needs tweaking. Is it or isn't HOD accurate? You seem to say both. Make…
    Comments on your final revision
    Good intro, but your thesis needs tweaking. Is it or isn't HOD accurate? You seem to say both. Make the distinciton you're trying to show clearer.

    Consider this:

    "Edward Garnett wrote a review on Heart of Darkness. He commented that the novel was an, "analysis of the deterioration of the white man's morale, when he is let lose from European restraint, and planted down in the tropics as an emissary of light armed to the teeth, to make trade profits out of the subject races" (Murfin 97).

    You should say "qtd. in Murfin 97" in your citation since you have not read Garnett's review, but read about it in Murfin. Nice touch--giving a link to an article on Garnett.

    This point needs better support:

    During the early twentieth century, the idea that reality can be questioned was not present; in fact, not many people had ever thought about the idea of reality, let alone question it (Gekoski 72-90)

    Questioning reality, trying to figure out what it consists of, has been going on throughout human history. I'm not sure Gekoski says what you make it sound like. Also when you cite 18 pps. like this it's hard to see what one pt. you got from those 18 pages. The logic in this para. needs some work.

    " racism and oppression of British people who rule over India during this time. This echoes Conrad's implication of how Englishmen exploited Africans, which will be later explicated."

    You mean oppression by the British. Also note that in HOD the pilgrims and ivory exporters that Marlow criticizes aren't Englishmen; they're Belgians.

    You seem to be digressing with all the writing about Forster and Greene here. The point isn't that HOD was an influential novel for later writers, but whether or not it accurately captures the historical reality.

    Why is Racism in HOD a separate subheading from themes? Couldn't you say that the presence of racism (if it's there) is a theme that Conrad is exploring?

    In your 2nd para. on racism, it's hard to tell where Achebe starts. You cite him at the end of the para. but seem to be using his argument after the word, "however."

    This subheading and t.s. seem to be drifting from your paper's main pt. You seem now to just be collecting themes from various critics:

    "Homosexuality or Homosocial?
    With the question of racism, Conrad describes homosocial relationships in his novel, which has led some critics to question the idea of homosexuality."

    The section on Craig Raine seems to belong earlier, in the section on racism.

    In the multiple narrators section, you have a long quotation from HOD, but no citation.

    You refer to Wasserman, but the citation is in Billy. Say "qtd. in Billy."

    Why does Imperalism follow Multiple Narrators? Isn't it related to Racism? This section does a good job of connecting to the thesis, but the order and organizatin of all of these sub-sections needs work. So do your major subheadings. What's the difference between "Accuracy in HOD" and "Historical Accuracy"? It's not immediately clear to the reader.

    The Beginning of the Scramble for Africa section doesn't have any citing. Some of it is more than common knowledge. Who calls Stanley "notorious," for example?

    You need a citation for this:

    "ancing is often part of rituals and celebrations in Congolese culture and is spiritually rooted. Dances vary between different groups in the Congo, but most are considered sacred and acknowledge the spirits they believe in. They often celebrate events that Europeans and Americans celebrate as well, such as births and rites of passage."

    Quote this (and cite it):"Conrad describes the natives as shells of people and part of the dirt."

    This section needs work w/ careful citing in general.

    Good job overall. The organization of this page needs some tightening and clarifying in places. But it's a good exploration of a lot of important issues.
    1:26 pm

Friday, December 11

  1. page Group 2 edited ... Congolese Authors The historical context and accuracy of the novel Heart of Darkness can be s…
    ...
    Congolese Authors
    The historical context and accuracy of the novel Heart of Darkness can be seen in the literature of the Congolese people and authors who have experienced the imperialism in the Congo. “The Congolese remember the experienced colonial violence throught eh medium of literature. Since Joseph Conrad’s paradigmatic Heart of Darkness there has been a fascination of the Congo as a space of overwhelming nature, unspeakable violence and human nature at its extreme” (Gehrmann, 1). Jospeh Conrad’s novel has been compared to novels written by Congolese authors and although it comes from a different point of view, they compare by describing similar events in history. “The Congo was notorious as a place of excessive violence “among the natives” as well as “upon the natives”, with its rubber exploitation and railway construction”(Gehrmann, 1). One author even made a reference to Heart of Darkness, “ a navigation up the Congo, allow the narrator to pursue a fragmented reconstruction of the violent history carried out on the bodies of the African subjects” (Gehrmann, 5). In comparison to Congolese authors’ novels Conrad’s Heart of Darkness is historically accurate with the times. The Congolese authors do however point out the point of view the novel was written from. That it shows the natives in a negative light and as uncivilized and possibly dehumanized, similar to the ideas from Achebe’s criticism.
    Evidence in Heart of Darkness Supporting Historical Truth
    King Leopold II collected over 900,000 square miles of land in central Africa, some of which consisted of the Congo Free State. Eventually, Leopold transformed the Congo into an ivory labor camp where thousands of tribal Africans were treated as animals and forced to work. In his book "Geography and Some Explorers," Conrad labeled imperialism in the Congo "the vilest scramble for loot that ever disfigured the history of human conscience" (Conrad, 17). The slaves were forced to suffer unsanitary working conditions that yielded murders, starvation, contraction of European diseases, in addition to a sharply decreased birth rate throughout the Congo. Years later it was published that the estimated depopulation toll during the Imperialist era in Africa was approximately ten million people. Conrad's Heart of Darkness withholds many historical accuracies as well as instances of his moral outrage towards Imperialism in the Congo and the white man's harsh treatment of the natives. In Heart of Darkness, Marlow witnesses natives that "crouched, lay, sat between the trees leaning against the trunks, clinging to the earth, half coming out, half effaced within the dim light, in all attitudes of pain, abandonment, and despair...they were dying slowly--it was very clear. They were not enemies, they were not criminals, they were nothing earthly now,--nothing but black shadows of disease and starvation, lying confusedly in the greenish gloom" (Conrad, 52-53). Just as the historic statistics demonstrate, death wiped out the natives in exponential increments due to starvation, disease, and abuse. When Marlow first arrives in Africa, he learns of Kurtz's apparent humanitarian attitude towards the natives. Looking forward to working with a man who, unlike Europeans in other ivory trading companies, treated the indigenous people well--it came as a surprise when Marlow sees that Kurtz rules the natives with a bloodthirsty finger just like any other power-stricken European. In this respect, the historical truth is very similar to Conrad's text. Conrad's anti-imperialist opinion are obvious through Marlow's character. While floating on the boat towards the Congo, Marlow expresses that "the conquest of the earth, which mostly means the taking it away from those who have a different complexion or slightly flatter noses than ourselves, is not a pretty thing when you look into it too much" (Conrad, 41). The character of Marlow is voicing Conrad's disapproval of imperialism. Just because people live in a different place, practice a different culture, have different colored skin, and even a different shaped nose there is no reason they are inferior to white-skinned Europeans.

    Conrad's Experience in Africa vs. Account in Heart of Darkness
    Conrad’s own personal journey into the African Congo as a young man was a major impact on his perception of that region and of imperialism, and ultimately on Heart of Darkness. In 1890 Conrad set out on a voyage to the Belgian Congo on special arrangements from a Belgian Company, while working for the British merchant marine. When he ventured off to the Congo, Conrad had been a man of the sea since his late teenage years, and had also been a member of the French merchant marine, as a result of connections from his uncle in France (Papke 584-585).
    ...
    Based on his works and background, critics were quick to call Conrad a “novelist of the sea”, however Conrad himself was quick to debunk such claims. He was not denying the obvious setting and outward theme of the sea present in his novelsm but rather was upset that people weren’t seeing the deeper meaning in his works. According to Conrad, the sea molds character “yet, in setting the conditions for shipboard drama-as to some extent it inevitably must-it reveals, like a mirror, the face of character itself.” Much of what is seen in Marlow’s character can be interpreted as parts of Conrad as well, and many of the realizations and feelings experienced in the fictional journey into the Congo are the same or at least close to what Conrad experienced as a seaman (Papke 585).
    It is undeniable that Conrad went to the Congo, however one topic of discussion amongst critics of Conrad, is what he actually saw while there, and how much of what goes on in Heart of Darkness is true, realistic, fabrication, or entirely false. Some critics, such as Patrick Brantlinger, claim that much of what is described in the novella, such as the acts of cannibalism by the native Africans, is not anything that Conrad himself witnessed but rather is hearsay and information obtained from other parties. In the words of Godwin Ede, and other critics who believe Conrad to be racist and Heart of Darkness to be a negative work, the six months he spent in the Congo, in which he was ill a good amount of time, were utterly insufficient to make many of the claims he did in his book (Ede 2).
    Evidence in Heart of Darkness Supporting Historical Truth
    King Leopold II collected over 900,000 square miles of land in central Africa, some of which consisted of the Congo Free State. Eventually, Leopold transformed the Congo into an ivory labor camp where thousands of tribal Africans were treated as animals and forced to work. In his book "Geography and Some Explorers," Conrad labeled imperialism in the Congo "the vilest scramble for loot that ever disfigured the history of human conscience" (Conrad, 17). The slaves were forced to suffer unsanitary working conditions that yielded murders, starvation, contraction of European diseases, in addition to a sharply decreased birth rate throughout the Congo. Years later it was published that the estimated depopulation toll during the Imperialist era in Africa was approximately ten million people. Conrad's Heart of Darkness withholds many historical accuracies as well as instances of his moral outrage towards Imperialism in the Congo and the white man's harsh treatment of the natives. In Heart of Darkness, Marlow witnesses natives that "crouched, lay, sat between the trees leaning against the trunks, clinging to the earth, half coming out, half effaced within the dim light, in all attitudes of pain, abandonment, and despair...they were dying slowly--it was very clear. They were not enemies, they were not criminals, they were nothing earthly now,--nothing but black shadows of disease and starvation, lying confusedly in the greenish gloom" (Conrad, 52-53). Just as the historic statistics demonstrate, death wiped out the natives in exponential increments due to starvation, disease, and abuse. When Marlow first arrives in Africa, he learns of Kurtz's apparent humanitarian attitude towards the natives. Looking forward to working with a man who, unlike Europeans in other ivory trading companies, treated the indigenous people well--it came as a surprise when Marlow sees that Kurtz rules the natives with a bloodthirsty finger just like any other power-stricken European. In this respect, the historical truth is very similar to Conrad's text. Conrad's anti-imperialist opinion are obvious through Marlow's character. While floating on the boat towards the Congo, Marlow expresses that "the conquest of the earth, which mostly means the taking it away from those who have a different complexion or slightly flatter noses than ourselves, is not a pretty thing when you look into it too much" (Conrad, 41). The character of Marlow is voicing Conrad's disapproval of imperialism. Just because people live in a different place, practice a different culture, have different colored skin, and even a different shaped nose there is no reason they are inferior to white-skinned Europeans.

    Exploration of the Congo by Stanley and Party
    The most effective way to assess the veracity of Conrad’s account of the Congo in Heart of Darkness would logically be to compare it side by side with others’ explorations in the area, particularly others who would not be tempted to distort facts and experiences, as they have only diaries to write in, as opposed to Conrad who had a novella to sell. By taking a peak into the diary of Henry Morton Stanley, perhaps the first true pioneer in the Congo territory, and one member of his party, it is possible gain new perspectives on exactly what went on in Africa during European imperialism.
    (view changes)
    9:02 pm
  2. page Group 2 edited ... In William G. Stairs’ diary, who was a member of Stanley’s party, there were few positive thin…
    ...
    In William G. Stairs’ diary, who was a member of Stanley’s party, there were few positive things written of the Africans and the trip as a whole. Stairs basically summarized the natives as primitive people who are greatly afraid of white men, who hang charms on their huts to ward off evil spirits, and who have a very underdeveloped moral code, as Stairs observed the body of a dead African impaled on a pole for killing one of his own (Goonetilleke 179-181). Similar hostile tactics are also mentioned. Interestingly, he also describes their journey in a manner strikingly similar to that in Conrad’s novella. Basically they just floated down the Congo River traveling from station to station with a distant final destination in the future, with ivory as the sole incentive for their trip (Goonetilleke 184). Both of these accounts confirm that Conrad was not making any great leaps from his experience in the Congo to the pages of Heart of Darkness.
    Conclusion
    ...
    easily confirm. True elements of history, such as how imperialism played out, Africans' account of the Europeans' prescence in their land, and Europeans' account of that same time period can all be seen interwoven in Heart of Darkness. Perhaps this novella could serve a better role in history classrooms as opposed to English classrooms.
    Works Cited
    make sure you put EVERYONE who you cited in your text in here! i feel like were missing some
    Text Cited
    Atkinson, William. "Bound in Blackwood's: The Imperialism in 'The Heart of
    (view changes)
    8:55 pm
  3. page Group 1 edited ... Furthermore, during this time period in history, Africa was a mystery, an abstract body that E…
    ...
    Furthermore, during this time period in history, Africa was a mystery, an abstract body that Europeans were not well-informed about. Hence, being that Europeans lacked knowledge, they made certain assumptions that were not valid; one being that Europeans in contact with African societies were outcasts. In fact, people that became acclimated to the African culture were considered "dark" because they associated with the unknown land of Africa. Today, this assumption would be considered outlandish; however, it was a common occurrence to equate the word "dark" with Europeans in contact with Africa. (Turci 110-111)
    Use of Multiple Narrators
    ...
    several different points of view,perspectives, and hopefully
    ...
    to be "inhuman","inhuman," savage animals
    In addition, one of the ideas provoked by the use of multiple narrators is that of the complexity of language. Considering the fact that Conrad himself did not speak English as his first language, it is apparent that it was a challenge to him, but is also a challenge to the reader, not necessarily in deciphering what Conrad wishes to say, but what he implies with his language (Hume 340-341). In addition, a prime in-text example of how language is important in Heart of Darkness was when the narrator of the novel, Marlow, writes, " I was within a hair's breadth of the last opportunity of pronouncement, and I found with humiliation that probably I would have nothing to say. This is the reason why I affirm that Kurtz was a remarkable man. He had something to say. He said it...He had summed up - he had judged. 'The horror!' He was a remarkable man." From this quote, it is apparent that language is key, as the character of Kurtz has supremacy over others as he knows how to speak well. Of course, Conrad's use of language in this instance is not completely revealed, as Conrad is not just trying to show that language is important. Rather, he is trying to show how language is illusive and can't necessarily be trusted.
    The fact that language is intertwined throughout the novel is partially due to Conrad's use of multiple narrators. For example, the novel is told mostly by Marlow, but what he is saying may be rooted in truth or it may be fiction. In addition, one of the characters that Marlow meets during his journey on the Congo says how Marlow should only listen to what Kurtz has to say, as his language, and the content provided by his language, is highly superb. The critic Jerry Wasserman comments how Conrad's theme of language was probably one of the most controversial in the twentieth century, and still remains controversial today. Wasserman concluded that Conrad's objective to use language to portray how it is illusive was an interesting way to provoke thoughts about reality (Billy 102-112). In other words, it seemed to Wasserman that Conrad was trying to show how reality is not exactly what we believe it to be, as we revolve around language that is illusive and delusional. As stated, this idea is controversial today, as it was during the twentieth century.
    Imperialism in Heart of Darkness
    Conrad presents scenes that depict the effects of Belgian imperialism in the Congo throughout his novella. Because Conrad witnessed these scenes firsthand in the Congo, and was alive during Kind Leopold's reign in Belgium, the events in Heart of Darkness are accurate. Jonah Raskin discusses Conrad's intent for writing Heart of Darkness in "Imperialism: Conrad's Heart of Darkness." He says that the novella gives a true record of Belgian Colonialism written in a very poetic form. Raskin claims that many critics have stretched the themes and intents of Heart of Darkness, and that Conrad's real purpose was to criticize colonialists in Africa, and to show English readers what was truly happening in Africa.
    ...
    of European Imperialism.imperialism. Raskin says that the Conrad used
    ...
    novella historically accurateaccurate, Conrad was
    Historical Africa and Heart of Darkness
    The Beginnings of the Scramble for Africa
    At the start of the sixteenth century, the Portugese had an established international slave trading system between France, England, and the Dutch. By the year 1800, the Congo Basin region had joined this system. As with other African nations joining the world market, the Congo's weak economical system came to rely heavily upon the income derived from selling peoples to European traders instead of crops and livestock . Unaware of the fact that foreign powers were taking advantage of and dehumanizing indigenous people, the Congo's new dependence on trade with Europe for stability continued after slavery's fall from favor with much of the world. This is evident at the start of the Industrial Revolution, when it became necessary to devise other economically efficient operations.
    ...
    "Heart of DarknessDarkness" 54). What
    It can be said that two of the more notable explorers of Africa and the Congo were David Livingstone and Henry Morton Stanley. Presumably, Livingstone had disappeared and succumbed to capture and mistreatment by natives. Following this public presumption, Stanley, a notable explorer, was sent to the dark continent to rescue him as well as continue mapping the land's interior. After locating Livingstone, Stanley proceeded to join his exploration party. Following several more successful and externally financed expeditions, Stanley was accosted by King Leopold II of Belgium for a "philanthropic" cause through the fraudulent International African Association, with intentions to uncover the mysteries of the Congo and civilize its people.
    To take advantage of Africa's wealth of raw material, Leopold II pursued colonizing the Congo as a citizen of Belgium with financial assistance from the government. He enlisted the notorious Stanley to explore, claim land, and establish a colony in the Congo Basin, and named this land The Congo Free State. To further profit from his colonial venture, the King covered up this purchase of land using the alias of the International African Association, a private stock-holding company boasting its dedication to international philanthropic activities for the Congo by outside nations. Essentially, King Leopold II's private ownership of the Association enabled him to be the sole profiteer of a region purchased with Belgium's money. Following the International African Association, King Leopold II formed a second company -- The International Congo Society. The investors for the I.C.S. were secretly bought out by the previous association, furthering his monopoly on the region.
    Due to several arising land ownership discrepancies between European countries regarding the Congo Basin region, the Berlin Conference convened in 1884 to reach a "fair" settlement. However, all were unaware that Leopold II actually owned the Congo, not the philanthropic organization in which they believed the Congo Free State to be a part of. The Congo Free State was then declared private property of The International African Society as negotiation. Free trade would still exist in Africa, and the remaining unclaimed regions of the continent were to be divided up among the conference's participating nations so long as the local chiefs voluntarily forfeited their rights to the land. The results of the Berlin Conference further enabled Leopold II's domination of the Congo and imperialism, as well the manipulation of people and abuse of foreign politics revealed by Conrad in Heart of Darkness.
    Congolese Culture
    ...
    sacred and to acknowledge the
    ...
    celebrate as wellwell, such as
    ...
    complex. This complexity howevercomplexity, however, goes completely
    Treatment of the Natives
    To see a video the depicts the treatments of the Africans by Europeans, click here
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    8:52 pm

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